Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style

Annual report

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Clare County Council (2019) supports the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan with pollinator friendly planting. 

Clare County Council (2019) Clare County Council: annual report 2019. Clare: Clare County Council. 

Author or organisation (Year of publication) Title of Report: subtitle [if any]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Atlas (with an author)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Crane (2011) explores the geographic regions of the world.

Crane, N. (2011) Barefoot Books world atlas. Bath: Barefoot Books Ltd.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of Atlas: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Atlas (without an author)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Korea borders with China (The Times comprehensive atlas of the world, 2011, p. 201).

The Times comprehensive atlas of the world (2011) 13th edn. London: Times Books.

Title of Atlas: subtitle [if any] (Year of publication) edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Conference paper

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Speaking about UCC’s role as a global leader in sustainability in higher education, Kirrane et al. (2019) discuss the Living Laboratory project. Kirrane, M., O’Halloran, J., Poland, M., Irwin, S. and Mehigan, P. (2019) Innovative approaches for research led education: UCC’s green campus living laboratory programme, Learning Connections 2019: spaces, people, practice. University College Cork, 5-6 December, pp. 165-168. doi: 10.33178/ LC. 2019.33

Author(s) name, initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of the Conference paper: subtitle [if any], Title of the Conference proceedings: subtitle [if any]. Place, date of conference, page numbers. Available at: web address (Accessed: date). doi (if available).

 

Dictionary

In-text citation: Reference List item:
According to Collins English dictionary (2012, p. 521), solar meansusing the energy of the sun’.

Collins English dictionary. (2012) 9th edn. London: Collins.

Title of Dictionary (Year of publication) edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher. 

DVD

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Before the Flood (2016) is a documentary film about climate change.  

Before the Flood (2016) Directed by F. Stevens. [DVD]. Washington D.C., Wash.: National Geographic Documentary Films.

Title of DVD (Year of distribution) Directed by name. [DVD, catalogue number if available]. Place of distribution: Distributor.

Encyclopaedia

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Reference sources provide comprehensive coverage of global warming and climate change (Encyclopaedia of climate change, 2017).

Encyclopaedia of climate change (2017) New York, N.Y.: H.W. Wilson.

Name of Encyclopaedia (Year of publication) edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Encyclopaedia (online)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
According to Encyclopaedia Britannica (2021)solar power is a form of renewable energy generated by the conversion of sunlight into electricity’.  

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2021) Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/solar-power-1868606 (Accessed: 27 April 2021).

Name of Encyclopaedia (Year of publication) Available at: web address (Accessed: date).

Film

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The film, 2040 (Gameau, 2019) looks at the effects of climate change over the next 20 years.

2040 (2019) Directed by D. Gameau. [Feature film]. Melbourne: Good Thing Productions.

Title of Film (Year of distribution) Directed by name. [Feature film]. Place of distribution: Distributor.

Green Paper

In-text citation: Reference List item:
This Green Paper (Department of Education, 1992) is a seminal publication on Irish schools.

Department of Education (1992) Education for a changing world. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Name of Government department (Year of publication) Title of Paper: subtitle [if any]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Interview (print/online)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Thunberg (2019) shares her worries and concerns about the climate crisis and the environment.

Thunberg, G. (2019) Schoolgirl climate change warrior. Interview with Greta Thunberg. Interviewed by J. Watts for The Guardian, 11 March. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/11/greta-thunberg-schoolgirl-climate-change-warrior-some-people-can-let-things-go-i-cant (Accessed: 15 May 2021).

Name, initial of person interviewed. (Year of interview) Title of Interview (if any). Interview with Interviewee. Interviewed by Interviewers name for Title of publication, Date of interview, page numbers [if available]. OR Available at: web address (Accessed: date).

Lecture notes/handouts

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The handouts (Bloggs, 2021) highlight the role solar energy resources play in industry.

Bloggs, J. (2021) Energy and environment: summary notes. 7456: Environment 1.  TUS: Midwest. Unpublished.

Lecturer name, initial. (Year of distribution) Title of Course material. Module code: module title. Name of institution. Unpublished.

Programme (radio)

In-text citation: Reference List item:

The interview with Easkey Britton on ocean pollution was fascinating (Mooney Goes Wild, 2021, 22.20).

Mooney Goes Wild (2021) RTE Radio 1, 6 June, 22.00.

Title of Programme (Year of transmission) Transmission channel, Date and time of transmission.

Programme (television)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Colour is an essential tool for the survival of animals (Attenborough’s Life in Colour, 2021).   

Attenborough’s Life in Colour (2021) BBC One Television, 28 February, 19:00.

Title of Programme (Year of transmission) Transmission channel, Date and time of transmission.

Recordings (songs)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
This song (Armstrong, 1967) is a celebration of the wonderful world we live in.

Armstrong, L. (1967) What a wonderful world, What a wonderful world [CD]. New York, N.Y.: ABC Records.

Artist (Year of release) Track Title, Title of Album [CD or vinyl, catalogue number] (if available). Place of distribution: Distributor.

Speech

In-text citation: Reference List item:
In her keynote speech, Robinson (2018) talks about her work on climate justice.

Robinson, M. (2018) Keynote address [Speech]. Our Ocean Wealth Summit, Galway Docks, 28 June.

Speaker name, initial. (Year of delivery) Title of Speech [Speech]. Event, Institution or venue, date.

The Bible

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The Beatitudes (Matthew 5: 3– 12) are the basis of a Christian life.

Matthew 5: 3– 12, Holy Bible. New International Edition.

Book of the Bible Chapter: verse, Holy Bible (not in italics). Version of the Bible.

Thesis (dissertation)

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Gilmartin (2019) highlights the importance of cement replacement for the environment. Gilmartin, A. (2019) What is the Irish cement industry doing to reduce its carbon footprint?. Unpublished B.Sc. dissertation. Limerick Institute of Technology. Author name, initial(s). (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement (B.Sc., M.A. etc.). Institution to which the thesis was submitted.   
Ryan (2020) identifies design improvements to the embankments along the River Shannon to protect against climate change. Ryan, D. (2020) Climate change and the impact on Limerick city’s flood embankments. M.E. thesis. University of Limerick. Available at: https://ulir.ul.ie /handle/10344/9314 (Accessed: 3 June 2021). Author name, initial(s). (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement (B.Sc., M.A. etc.). Institution to which the thesis was submitted.   
AND, if published online, include - Available at: web address (Accessed: date).

Translations

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The popularity of farmers’ markets reflects a trend towards home-grown produce and the importance of traceability (Poulain, 2017).

Poulain, J.P. (2017) The sociology of food: eating and the place of food in society. Translated from the French by A. Dorr. London: Bloomsbury.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. Translated from the original language by translator’s name. Place of Publication: Publisher.

White Paper

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The White Paper (Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, 2015) is a complete energy policy update.

Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (2015) Ireland’s transition to a low carbon energy future 2015-2030. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Name of Government department (Year of publication) Title of Paper: subtitle [if any]. Place of Publication: Publisher.  

The Library, Technological University of the Shannon: Midwest