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Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style

One author

In-text citation: Reference List item:
More people create a greater demand for food, energy, water and other resources, driving pressures on the natural environment’ (Juniper, 2016, p. 16).

Juniper, T. (2016) What's really happening to our planet?. New York, N.Y.: DK Publishing.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Two authors

In-text citation: Reference List item:

As researchers point out, ‘so many aspects of our lives are only possible because we have access to reliable electricity’ (Ockwell and Byrne, 2017, p. 2). 

Ockwell, D. and Byrne, R. (2017) Sustainable energy for all: innovation, technology and pro-poor green observations. London: Routledge.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Three or more authors

In-text citation: Reference List item:
According to Woodruff et al. (2016, p. 50) ‘the produced electricity from solar power plants is very low’.

Woodruff, E.B., Lammers, H.B. and Lammers, T.F. (2016) Steam plant operation.10th edn. New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill. 

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Multiple works - same author

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Research over the years (Peake, 2009; 2021) has indicated that the effects of climate change are wide ranging. 

Peake, S. (2009) Climate change: from science to sustainability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Peake, S. (2021) Renewable energy: ten short lessons. Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins University Press. 

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

When using two studies by the same author in different years, paraphrasing is essential. Place in chronological order - oldest first.

Works by different authors - same family name

In-text citation: Reference List item:

Barr (2016) explores the notion of environmental action or what it means to be green.

Barr (2018) chronicles the history of the Manhattan skyscrapers.

Barr, S. (2016) Environment and society: sustainability, policy and the citizen. London: Routledge. 

Barr, J.M. (2018) Building the skyline: the birth and growth of Manhattan’s skyscrapers. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Note: The year of publication will differentiate between the two authors. 
Use initials in the citation  if the year of publication is the same - see example below.

Works by different authors - same family name - same year

In-text citation: Reference List item:
In his latest work of fiction, Williams, N. (2020) describes the changeable weather conditions in West Clare, while noted nature writer, Williams, T. (2020) writes about climate change across the seasons in North America.   

Williams, N. (2020) This is happiness. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Williams, T. (2020) Earth almanac: a year of witnessing the wild, from the call of the loon to the journey of the gray whale. North Adams, Mass.: Storey Publishing. 

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Second or later edition with an author

In-text citation: Reference List item:
According to Davidson (2019, p. 370) ‘interest in designing greener meetings and events has been growing’. 

Davidson, R. (2019) Business events. 2nd edn. London: Routledge.  

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Several sources are cited at once

In-text citation: Reference List item:

Juniper (2016); Barr (2018); Williams (2020); and Peake (2021) all agree that renewable energy is one positive step towards slowing down the negative effects of climate change. 
OR
Recent studies (Juniper, 2016; Barr, 2018; Williams, 2020; Peake, 2021) have shown that renewable energy is one positive step towards slowing down the negative effects of climate change.

Barr, J.M. (2018) Building the skyline: the birth and growth of Manhattan’s skyscapers. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.  

Juniper, T. (2016) What’s really happening to our planet?. New York, N.Y.: DK Publishing. 

Peake, S. (2021) Renewable energy: ten short lessons. Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins University Press. 

Williams, N. (2020) This is happiness. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Note: The authors are listed in chronological order in the in-text citations BUT in alphabetical order according to surnames in the reference list. 

Organisational corporate or institutional author

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains that ‘air quality in Ireland is generally good’ (2020, p. 4).

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2020) Air quality in Ireland. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency.

Corporate author (year of publication) Title of Book or Report: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Book - edited

In-text citation: Reference List item:
‘Primary energy sources can be divided into renewable and non-renewable sources’ (Hadorn, 2015, p. 88).

Hadorn, J.C. (ed.) (2015) Solar and heat pump systems for residential buildings. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 

Editor(s) name, initial(s). (ed.) (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Book review

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Brady (2021) gives a very positive review of McAnulty’s memoir, which focuses on the natural environment.  

Brady, A. (2021) Finding hope in nature. Review of Diary of a young naturalist, by D. McAnulty. Scientific American, 344(6), p. 80. 

Reviewer’s name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of the review. Review of Title of Book being reviewed, by Author(s) of book. Title of Journal/Newspaper containing the review, volume(Issue number), page number(s).

Chapters/sections of edited books

In-text citation: Reference List item:
‘A conservatory or greenhouse on the south side of a building can be thought of as a kind of habitable solar collector’ (Everett, 2018, p. 75).

Everett, B. (2018) Solar thermal energy, in Peake, S. (ed.) Renewable energy: power for a sustainable future. 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 57-114.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of chapter, in Editor(s) of the book containing the chapter (ed.) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher, page number(s).

Volumes of multi-volume works

In-text citation: Reference List item:
This volume examines the role the media plays in the public’s understanding of climate change (Brevini and Lewis, 2018). 

Brevini, B. and Lewis, J. (eds) (2018) Climate change and the media: Vol.2. (2 vols). New York, N.Y.: Peter Lang Publishing. 

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any] Vol no. (No. of vols). Place of Publication: Publisher.

     

No date can be established

In-text citation: Reference List item:
The text is embellished with illustrations from original drawings (Measom, no date). 

Measom, G.S. (no date) The official illustrated guide to the great Western railway. London: Richard Griffin & Co.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (no date) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

The date can be established but only approximately

In-text citation: Reference List item:
Gaskell (c. 1855) sets her social novel in an industrial English city, driven by coal-powered factories.

Gaskell, E. (c. 1855) North and South. London: Chapman & Hall.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (c. year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Secondary referencing (source cited or quoted in another source)

In-text citation: Reference List item:

Taylor’s observations (1996, cited in Garvey, 2019) are based on a genuine respect for nature. 
OR
A respect for nature is based on the belief that ‘every living thing has a good of its own’ (Taylor, 1996, quoted in Garvey, 2019, p. 53).

Garvey, J. (2019) The ethics of climate change: right and wrong in a warming world. London: Continuum. 

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle [if any]. edn [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Note: Garvey is the author who will appear in the reference list. 
Try to locate the primary source if possible.

The Library, Technological University of the Shannon: Midwest