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Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style

Hard copy books - one author

In text: In the reference list:
A recent study (O’Brien 2005 p. 19) highlighted the ‘importance of wind energy in providing a clean, sustainable solution to our energy problems’.

O’Brien, J. (2005) Wind energy and its place in revitalising economies, New York N.Y.: Wiley.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book or Report: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - two authors

In text: In the reference list:
A recent study (O’Brien & Murphy 2009 p. 45) predicted that ‘…’’.

O’Brien, J. and Murphy, J. (2009) Renewable energy: trends and developments, London: Peacock Publishers.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - three authors or more

In text: In the reference list:
A recent study (O’Brien et al 2010 p. 101) highlighted the fact that “ ‘…’

O’Brien, J., O’Neill, J. and Murphy, J. (2010) Solar power and its implications, New York, N.Y.:Macmillan.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - multiple works - same author

In text: In the reference list:
Research (O’Brien 2005, 2006) has indicated that…

O’Brien, J. (2005) Wind energy and its place in revitalising economies, New York, N.Y.: Wiley.

O’Brien, J. (2006) Renewable energy policy, New York,N.Y.: Universe Inc.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle
[if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Or
Research reports (O’Brien 1993a, 1993b) have shown that…

O’Brien, J. (1993) Renewable energy policy and politics, London: Earthscan.

O’Brien, J. (1993) Renewable energy: sustainable energy concepts for the future, New York N.Y.: Wiley.
Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle
[if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.
  When using two studies by the same author in different years, paraphrasing is essential. Place in chronological order- oldest first.

Hard copy books - works by different authors - same family name

In text: In the reference list:
A recent report (Ryan 2008 p. 64) shows that ‘…’

Ryan, F. (2008) Renewable energy and climate change, New York, N.Y.:Wiley.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle
[if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Or
It was recently found that ‘…’ (Ryan 2009 p. 14).

Ryan, J. (2009) Renewable energies: success stories, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publication of the European Communities.

  Note: The year of publication will differentiate between the two authors

Hard copy books - works by different authors - same family name - same year

In text: In the reference list:
Ryan (2004 p. 99) proposed that ‘solar panels can provide around 60% of the hot water requirements for homes and buildings’. Further investigation proved that there were notable weaknesses in this claim (Ryan 2004 p. 48).

Ryan, F. (2004) Solar electricity, New York, N.Y.: Wiley.
Ryan, J. (2004) Ryan, J. (2009) Renewable energy and climate change, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle
[if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - second or later edition with an author

In text: In the reference list:
According to Conway (2008 p. 90) ‘solar collectors can be particularly economical for space or water heating in large buildings’.

Conway, P. (2008) Solar energy in building renovation, 2nd ed, London: James & James.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - several sources are cited at once

In text: In the reference list:

Conway (2008), McKenna (2009), O’Brien (2005) & Ryan (2004) all agree that advanced thermal conversion technologies such as gasification and paralysis offer efficient, low emission solutions for energy from municipal and industrial solid waste.

Or
Recent studies (Conway 2008, McKenna 2009, O’Brien 2005 & Ryan 2004) have shown that…

Conway, P. (2008) Solar energy in building renovation, 2nd ed, London: James & James.

McKenna, P. (2009) Solar collectors and their fields of application, London: Macmillan.

O’Brien, J. (2005) Wind energy and its place in revitalizing economies, New York, N.Y.: Wiley.

Ryan, F. (2004) Solar electricity, New York, N.Y.: Wiley.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

  Note: Paraphrasing is essential if you are going to cite the essence of what the authors all agree upon. Alphabetise according to the name of the first author in each source.

Hard copy books - organisational corporate or institutional author

In text: In the reference list:
A recent report (Environmental Protection Agency 2009 p. 10) suggests that ‘the commonest type of pollution – organic pollution - is caused by sewage, animal manure slurries and food processing wastes’.

Environmental Protection Agency (2009). A biological study of river quality in Ireland, Dublin: Environmental Protection Agency.

Corporate Author. (year of publication) Title of Book or Report: Subtitle
[if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Book - Edited

In text: In the reference list:
Sandalow (2009) outlines the merits of plug in electric vehicles...

Sandalow, D.B. ed. (2009) Plug in electric vehicles: what role for Washington, Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Editor(s) name, initial(s)., ed(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Book review

In text: In the reference list:
In his review of Animal Spirits… (Nickell 2010).

Nickell, S. (2010) Animal Spirits by Akerlof, G.A., reviewed in The Economic Journal 120 pp. 351-353.

Reviewer’s name, initial(s). (year of publication of review) Title of
Book Being Reviewed
by Author(s) of book, reviewed in Title of Journal/
Newspaper
containing the review, volume (issue), page.

Book chapter or contribution

In text: In the reference list:
Smith (2004) demonstrates the value of…

Smith, A. (2004) Innovative solutions to saving energy, in Healey, M. & Scott, P. (eds.) Alternative energy demystified, London: McGraw-Hill, pp. 65-89.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of chapter/ contribution, in Editor(s) or Compiler(s) of the book containing the contribution, ed.(s) [or comp.(s)], Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not first], Place of Publication: Publisher, page number(s).

Hard copy books - one volume of a multivolume work

In text: In the reference list:
It would appear that ‘energy recovery is possible from mixed waste paper’ (Dawson & Danaher 2005 p. 88).

Dawson, H. and Danaher, L. (2005) Energy studies, Vol 3, London: Penguin.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle
[if any], Vol no, ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - no date can be established

In text: In the reference list:
Robinson (n.d.) suggests that ‘reliance upon market mechanisms alone will not permit realization of economically efficient levels of energy efficiency’.

Robinson, G. (n.d.) Making energy efficiency work, London: Macmillan.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - the date can be established but only approximately

In text: In the reference list:
Robinson (c. 2006) suggests that…

Robinson, G. (c. 2006.) Making energy efficiency work, London : Macmillan.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle
[if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Hard copy books - secondary referencing (source quoted in another source)

In text: In the reference list:

Robinson’s observations in 1995 (cited in O'Mahony 2000) led to…

Or

Without specific energy policy, ‘a country would not be able to solve the acute problems like reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission’. (Robinson 1995, cited in O’Mahony 2000 p. 4).

O'Mahony, J. (2000) A review on global wind energy policy, Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

  Note: O'Mahony is the author who will appear in the reference list. Try to locate the primary source if possible.

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