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Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style

The Reference List

  • The reference list is a detailed list of all the sources that you have cited within your work, including books, eBooks, journal articles, theses, webpages etc. 
  • Items are listed in alphabetical order in the reference list according to the main author/editor’s surname.
  • This means that regardless of the order in which the in-text citations appear within your work, these items are all listed alphabetically by author/editor in the reference list. 
  • This explains why the Harvard referencing style is also known as the ‘author-date’ style.

Differences between a Reference List and a Bibliography

  • The reference list is an alphabetical list of all the sources that you cited in the text of your assignment. 
  • A bibliography is a separate list, presented in the same format as a reference list, however, it includes all the sources you consulted in the preparation of your assignment, not just those you cited. 
  • In other words, a bibliography presents the same items as a reference list, but it also includes references to all the additional research you carried out, so it shows your extra effort. 

Compiling your Reference List or Bibliography

  • All in-text references must be included in an alphabetical list, by author/editor’s surname, at the end of the work. As stated earlier, this is known as the reference list. A bibliography is a list of all works you used in preparation of the work, but which were not necessarily cited/referred to.
  • This list must not be numbered.
  • When there is no author/editor, use the title (book, journal, newspaper etc.)
  • References in your reference list must be a full description of the in–text citations.
  • If there is more than one publication by the same author, arrange the works in chronological order.
  • In your reference list/bibliography the following abbreviations are accepted:

- (ed.) editor 
- (eds) editors 
- col. column
- comp(s). compiler/compilers
- edn. edition
- et al. and others
- n.d. no knowledge of the date
- no. number
- par. paragraph
- s.l. no place of publication
- s.n. publisher unknown
- vol. volume

The Library, Technological University of the Shannon: Midwest