Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style

The reference list

The reference list is a list of all the sources that have been cited in your work showing books, journals, etc., listed in one list, not in separate lists according to resource type i.e. you don’t put books in one list and journals in another- everything is together in one list as follows:

  • In alphabetical order by author/editor.
  • Books, journal articles, e-journal articles, etc. are laid out in a defined template that must be adhered to.

A reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from.

Differences between a reference list and a bibliography:

The reference list only identifies sources referred to (cited) in the text of your assignment. A bibliography is presented in the same format as a reference list but it includes all material consulted in the preparation of your assignment. In other words, a bibliography presents the same items as a reference list but it also includes all other sources which you have read or consulted but did not cite. A bibliography allows you to show to your reader (examiner) the unused research you carried out. The bibliography will show your extra effort.

Compiling your reference list or bibliography

  • All in-text references must be included in an alphabetical list, by author’s surname, at the end of the work. As stated earlier, this is known as the Reference List. A bibliography is a list of all works you used in preparation of the work, but which were not necessarily cited/referred to.
  • This list must not be numbered.
  • When there is no author, use the title.
  • References in your reference list must be a full description of the in–text references (citations).
  • If there is more than one publication by the same author, arrange the works in chronological order.
  • In your reference list/bibliography the following abbreviations are accepted:

- & (ampersand) appears between the names of authors but only where these appear in brackets in in-text (citation) referencing and not  in the reference list.
- (ed.) editor 
- (eds.) editors 
- col. column
- comp(s). compiler/compilers
- ed. edition
- et al. and others
- n.d. or s.d. no knowledge of the date
- no. number
- par. Paragraph
- s.l. no place of publication
- s.n. publisher unknown
- vol. volume

Example of a reference list

Andrews, J. (2007) Energy science: principles, technologies and impacts, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bradford, T. (2006) Solar revolution: the economic transformation of the global energy industry, Ebrary, [online], available: [accessed 24 Feb 2011].

Burton, T. (2004) Wind energy handbook, New York N.Y.: Wiley.

Byrne, C. (2007). Renewable energy: meeting Ireland’s future energy demands, unpublished dissertation (B.Sc), Limerick Institute of Technology.

Campbell, I.M. (1986) Energy and the atmosphere: a physical-chemical approach, Chichester: Wiley.

Doty, S. and Turner, W.C. (2009) Energy management handbook, Lilburn, GA: Fairmont Press.

Elliott, D. (2002) Energy, society and environment: technology for a sustainable future, Ebrary, [online], available:,81,86,B/l856~b1096004&FF=tenergy+society+and+environment+technology+for+a+sustainable+future&1,1,,1,0 [accessed 24 Feb 2011).

Jackson, J. (2008) Energy budgets at Risk (EBaR) : a risk management approach to energy purchase and efficiency choices, Ebrary, [online], available:,1,1,B/l856~b1114331&FF=tenergy+budgets&1,1,,1,0/startreferer//search~S0/tenergy+budgets/tenergy+budgets/1,1,1,B/frameset&FF=tenergy+budgets&1,1,/endreferer/ [accessed 01 Feb 2011).

Moss, K. (2006) Energy management in buildings, London: Taylor and Francis.

Nersesian, R.L. (2007) Energy for the 21st century: a comprehensive guide to conventional and alternative sources, Ebrary, [online] available: [accessed 02 February 2011].

Sahin, A.D (2004) Progress and recent trends in wind energy, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30 (5): 501-543, available: [accessed 10 Feb 2011].

Sesto, E. and Casale, C. (1998) Exploitation of wind as an energy source to meet the world’s electricity demand, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 74 (2): 45-50, available: Science Direct [accessed 02 Feb 2011].

Sexton, I. (2010) Wind energy: the impact on the rural community, unpublished dissertation (B.Sc), Limerick Institute of Technology.

Wengenmayr, R and Buhrke, T. (2008) Renewable energy: sustainable energy concepts for the future, Weinheim: Wiley.


The Library, Limerick Institute of Technology